SRI International designs ERMA (Electronic Recording Machine, Accounting), for Bank of America. At the time, accounts were posted manually, a method that would quickly be outstripped by the growth in check writing after World War II. The ERMA project digitized checking by creating a computer-readable font. A special scanner read account numbers preprinted on checks using magnetic ink character recognition. In just one hour, ERMA could process the number of accounts that would have taken a well-trained banker nearly 17 workdays to complete. A team drawn from several computer manufacturers and the Pentagon develop COBOL—an acronym for Common Business-Oriented Language. Many of its specifications borrow heavily from the earlier FLOW-MATIC language.
Designed for business use, early COBOL efforts aimed for easy readability of computer programs and as much machine independence as possible. Designers hoped a COBOL program would run on any computer for which a compiler existed with only minimal modifications. Howard Bromberg, an impatient member of the committee in charge of creating COBOL, had this tombstone made out of fear that the language had no future. However, COBOL survives to this day. A study in 1997 estimated that over 200 billion lines of COBOL code was still in existence, accounting for 80% of all business software code. ASCII — American Standard Code for Information Interchange — permits machines from different manufacturers to exchange data.
The ASCII code consisted of 128 unique strings of ones and zeros. Each sequence represented a letter of the English alphabet, an Arabic numeral, an assortment of punctuation marks and symbols, or a function such as a carriage return.
ASCII can only represent up to 256 symbols, and for this reason many other languages are better supported by Unicode, which has the ability to represent over 100,000 symbols. Ivan Sutherland publishes Sketchpad, an interactive, real-time computer drawing system, as his MIT doctoral thesis. Using a light pen and Sketchpad, a designer could draw and manipulate geometric figures on a computer screen.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research. The SVM and Kernel Methods Matlab Toolbox is available for download at enseignants/∼arakotom/toolbox/index.html. The Semantic Indexing Project is to create tools to identify the latent knowledge found in text, and the source code is available for download at: A Matlab. Unix shell scripting with ksh/bash Course Handout: (last update 22 March 2012) These notes may be found at http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rc/classes/ksh. Note: You must install matlab site-licensed software before you install child toolboxes. These toolboxes require you to be connected to the Dartmouth network in order to use them. Child Toolbox Downloads.
Blossoming into the best known of the early drawing applications, Sketchpad influenced a generation of design and drafting programs. Although used mostly for engineering drawings, it had some artistic applications, including a famous drawing of Nefertiti that could be animated to a limited extent.
Seymour Papert designs LOGO as a computer language for children. Initially a drawing program, LOGO controlled the actions of a mechanical 'turtle,' which traced its path with pen on paper. Electronic turtles made their designs on a video display monitor.
Papert emphasized creative exploration over memorization of facts: 'People give lip service to learning to learn, but if you look at curriculum in schools, most of it is about dates, fractions, and science facts; very little of it is about learning. I like to think of learning as an expertise that every one of us can acquire.' CICS (Customer Information Control System), an IBM transaction processing system, is released. Before CICS was introduced, many industries used punched card batch processing for high-volume customer transactions. As it allowed online transaction processing, CICS was able to replace this method and greatly sped up the way that companies interacted with their customers. It was first used in the public utility industry for access to customer information and transactions, but soon after its release it was quickly adopted by a wide spectrum of industries including banking, oil, insurance and even smaller companies. Although it was originally intended to only last a few years, CICS is still in use today.
AT&T Bell Labs programmers Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie develop the UNIX operating system on a spare DEC minicomputer. UNIX combined many of the timesharing and file management features offered by Multics, from which it took its name. (Multics, a project of the mid-1960s, represented one of the earliest efforts at creating a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system.) The UNIX operating system quickly secured a wide following, particularly among engineers and scientists, and today is the basis of much of our world’s computing infrastructure. Gary Kildall develops the first commercially successful operating system for microcomputers, CP/M. He and his wife established Intergalactic Digital Research (modestly dropping “Intergalactic” later) to market it.
CP/M made it possible for one version of a program to run on a variety of computers built around eight-bit microprocessors. At one point Digital Research and Microsoft were approached by IBM about providing an operating system for its PC. Microsoft won the competition with its own operating system, called MS-DOS. Richard Stallman, a programmer at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Lab, set out to develop a free alternative to the popular Unix operating system. This operating system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix) was going to be free of charge but also allow users the freedom to change and share it. Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation (FSF) based on this philosophy in 1985.
While the GNU work did not immediately result in a full operating system, it provided the necessary tools for creating another Unix-type system known as Linux. The software developed as part of the GNU project continues to form a large part of Linux, which is why the FSF asks for it to be called GNU/Linux. Phil Moorby and Prabhu Goel of Gateway Design Automation create Verilog, a hardware description language that is used in the design of digital circuitry. Initially designed for Gateway’s Verilog XL Design Logic Simulator, it was a vast improvement over methods being used by circuit designers at the time. Gateway Design Automation was acquired in 1989 by Cadence Design, which released the Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) into the public domain the following year. Verilog is now one of two hardware description languages used in the world today to design complex digital systems.
The C++ programming language emerges as the dominant object-oriented language in the computer industry when Bjarne Stroustrup publishes the book The C++ Programming Language. Stroustrup, from AT&T Bell Labs, said his motivation stemmed from a desire to create a language that would allow for more complex programs and which combined the low-level features of BCPL with the high-level structures of Simula. According to Stroustrup: 'C++ is a general purpose programming language designed to make programming more enjoyable for the serious programmer.”. Aldus announces its PageMaker program for use on Macintosh computers, launching the desktop publishing revolution. Two years later, Aldus released a version for the IBM PC.
Developed by Paul Brainerd, PageMaker allowed users to combine graphics and text easily into professional quality documents. Pagemaker was one of three components to the desktop publishing revolution. The other two were the invention of Postscript by Adobe and the LaserWriter laser printer from Apple. All three were necessary to create a desktop publishing environment. Apple engineer William Atkinson designs HyperCard, a software tool that simplifies development of in-house applications. In HyperCard, programmers built “stacks” of information with the concept of hypertext links between stacks of pages.
Microsoft lined up a number of other applications ahead of time that ran under Windows 3.0, including versions of Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. As a result, PC users were exposed to the user-friendly concepts of the Apple Macintosh, making the IBM PC more popular. Photoshop is released. Created by brothers John and Thomas Knoll, Photoshop was an image editing program and the most popular software program published by Adobe Systems. Thomas, while earning a PhD at the University of Michigan, had created an early version of the program in 1987, and John saw a practical use for it as a special effects staff member at Industrial Light & Magic.
It was then used for image editing in the “pseudopod” scene in the movie The Abyss. When Adobe saw potential in the project they bought a license for distribution in 1989 and released the product on February 19, 1990.
Pretty Good Privacy, or PGP, a public-key encryption program, is introduced and is used for securing texts, emails and files. Its inventor, software engineer Phil Zimmermann, created it as a tool for people to protect themselves from intrusive governments, businesses, and institutions around the world. Zimmermann posted PGP on the Internet in 1991 where it was available as a free download.
The United States government, concerned about the strength of PGP, which rivaled some of the best secret codes in use at the time, prosecuted Zimmermann but dropped its investigation in 1996. FreeBSD, a complete Unix-like operating system is launched. It was the most widely used open-source BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) variant.
After its initial release, the software was significantly re-engineered due to a lawsuit between Unix copyright holder Unix Systems Laboratories and the University of California, Berkeley. The lawsuit revolved around source code in Berkeley’s 4.3BSD-Lite which was the basis of the FreeBSD operating system. FreeBSD incorporated features including networking, storage, security, portability and Linux compatibility. During the late 1990s, the impending Year 2000 (Y2K) bug fuels news reports that the onset of the year 2000 will cripple telecommunications, the financial sector and other vital infrastructure. The issue was rooted in the fact that date stamps in most previously written software used only two digits to represent year information.
This meant that some computers might not be able to distinguish the year 1900 from the year 2000. Although there were some minor glitches on New Year’s Day in 2000, no major problems occurred, in part due to a massive effort by business, government and industry to repair their code beforehand. Apple’s iTunes is released. It was based on Bill Kincaid’s SoundJam MP software, the rights to which Apple purchased. Initially, iTunes was only supported on the Mac operating system and functioned as a media player and media management tool. ITunes allowed users to record music from CDs, bring it into iTunes, mix it with other songs and then burn a custom CD.
When the Apple iTunes music store was launched in 2003, it transformed music distribution and the entire music industry. Less than a week after its launch, over one million songs were downloaded. By 2013, over 25 billion songs had been downloaded from the iTunes store. Hadoop is an open source software project initially developed by Google as a means of extracting search results from large amounts of unstructured data, such as data found on the web. It was used by many large corporations where networked scalability, cost effectiveness and fault tolerance were critical to their business models. Companies such as Google, Yahoo, American Airlines, IBM and Twitter all used Hadoop, and it could be scaled from a single server to thousands.
With Hadoop different types of data could be seamlessly integrated and Hadoop could redirect work to another system if a node failed in the cluster. Scratch is released to the public. A free programming language that focused on education, it was designed by a team led by Mitchel Resnick at the MIT Media Lab Lifelong Kindergarten Group. Intended to be used by educators, students and parents as a teaching language, it had a number of applications in educational settings.
These included math, computer science, language arts and social studies. Its interface allowed novice users to stack and organize block commands to write programs. Scratch has millions of users worldwide and is available in more than 40 languages. Instagram, an image-sharing and social networking application, is purchased by Facebook for nearly $1 billion. It was initially launched in October 2010 by founders Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger and became an instant hit, with over 100 million active users by early 2013.
Photos and videos (with 15 second maximum length) could be shared among users, who could then annotate these images with specific hash tags to enable them to be easily shared among other social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook. Instagram also allowed users to manipulate their photos with a variety of digital filters such as “Slumber,” “Kelvin,” “1977,” “Sierra,” and “Inkwell.”. An updated Microsoft Office 365 is announced. It was a subscription-based software product.
Microsoft’s Word, Excel, OneNote, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher were all available in packages for a monthly or annual subscription. Also included with a subscription was 1 TB of cloud storage on Microsoft’s One Drive (formerly Skydrive). Home, personal, university, business, and enterprise subscription plans were made available for a wide range of users. Microsoft’s change to a subscription model was not unique: Apple, Adobe, IBM and many other large software and technology companies adopted this model as well. HTML 5 is announced as the successor to HTML 4, which had become the standard for web markup languages in 1997.
Markup languages describe how web pages will look and function. Work on HTML 5 had begun in 2004 under the auspices of the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group. It was simplified compared to its predecessors and was intended to be human-readable. HLTML 5 also offered a number of improvements for multimedia, such as simplifying the embedding of content such as streaming video and games into web pages. The Heartbleed bug is uncovered as a dangerous security flaw in the code base of the OpenSSL cryptographic software library.
OpenSSL protected a significant portion of the world’s web servers, and nearly 20% of them were found to be vulnerable to attack from this particular security bug, which allowed hackers to eavesdrop on the communications of unsuspecting victims and steal sensitive information such as user names and passwords, emails, instant messages, and even confidential files and documents. Although it was a dangerous and widespread bug, installation of the “Fixed OpenSSL” library by service providers and users greatly reduced its effectiveness.
PyMVPA is a package intended to ease statistical learning analyses of large datasets. It offers an extensible framework with a high-level interface to a broad range of algorithms for classification, regression, feature selection, data import and export.
It is designed to integrate well with related software packages, such as,,, etc. While it is not limited to the neuroimaging domain, it is eminently suited for such datasets. PyMVPA is free software and requires nothing but free-software to run.
PyMVPA stands for Multi Variate Pattern Analysis () in Python. Contributing We welcome all kinds of contributions, and you do not need to be a programmer to contribute!
If you have some feature in mind that is missing, some example use case that you want to share, you spotted a typo in the documentation, or you have an idea how to improve the user experience all together – do not hesitate and. We will then figure out how your contribution can be best incorporated. Any contributor will be acknowledged and will appear in the list of people who have helped to develop PyMVPA on the front-page of the.
Posters Hanke, M., Halchenko, Y. O., Sederberg, P. B., Hanson, S. J., Haxby, J. & Pollmann, S.
Poster emphasizing PyMVPA’s capabilities concerning multi-modal data analysis at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Washington, 2008. Hanke, M., Halchenko, Y. O., Sederberg, P. B., Hanson, S.
J., Haxby, J. & Pollmann, S. First presentation of PyMVPA at the conference Psychologie und Gehirn [Psychology and Brain],, 2008. This poster received the poster prize of the German Society for Psychophysiology and its Application. Acknowledgements We are greatful to the developers and contributers of, and for providing an excellent Python-based computing environment. Additionally, as PyMVPA makes use of a lot of external software packages (e.g. Classifier implementations), we want to acknowledge the authors of the respective tools and libraries (e.g.,,, ) and thank them for developing their packages as free and open source software.
Finally, we would like to express our acknowledgements to the for providing us with hosting facilities for mailing lists and source code repositories. But most of all for developing the universal operating system. Grant support PyMVPA development was supported, in part, by the following research grants. This list includes grants funding development of specific algorithm implementations in PyMVPA, as well as grants supporting individuals to work on PyMVPA: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research • BMBF 01GQ11112 German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt • Project: Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences German Academic Exchange Service • PPP-USA D/05/504/7 McDonnel Foundation US National Institutes of Mental Health • 5R01MH075706 • F32MH085433-01A1 US National Science Foundation • NSF 1129764. Similar or Related Projects There are a number other projects with – in comparison to PyMVPA – partially overlapping features or a similar purpose. Some of their functionality is already available through and within the PyMVPA framework.
Only free software projects are listed here. •: plugin to apply support vector machine classifiers to fMRI data. •: Matlab/Octave toolbox designed after PyMVPA and with good interoperability with PyMVPA. •: Efficient Learning, Large-scale Inference, and Optimization Toolkit. Multi-purpose open source library for machine learning. •: Python data processing framework.
Provides various algorithms. PyMVPA makes use of MDP’s PCA and ICA implementations. •: Matlab-based toolbox to facilitate multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI neuroimaging data.
•: based Python module for fast and easy statistical learning on NeuroImaging data. •: Project with growing functionality to analyze brain imaging data. Is heavily connected to SciPy and lots of functionality developed within NiPy becomes part of SciPy. •: Software package for low-frequency bio-electromagnetism solving forward problems in the field of EEG and MEG. OpenMEEG includes Python bindings. •: Powerful general-purpose data mining software.
Orange also has Python bindings. •: Matlab-based GUI pattern recognition toolbox for MRI data.
•: Python IO library to for FreeSurfer’s mgh data format. •: Interactive object oriented framework for machine learning written in Python. PyML focuses on SVMs and other kernel methods.
•: Read and write NIfTI images from within Python. PyMVPA uses NiBabel to access MRI datasets. •: Python module integrating classic machine learning algorithms in the tightly-knit world of scientific Python packages.
•: Comprehensive machine learning toolbox with bindings to various programming languages. PyMVPA can optionally use implementations of Support Vector Machines from Shogun.